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Oscola Bibliography Newspaper Articles

Your bibliography will be made up of all the sources you cited in your work. Provide separate lists for each category, such as legislation, cases, government publications, books and journal articles. List items alphabetically within each category. You may be requested to divide your list of legislation and list of cases into separate sections for different jurisdictions.

Place your bibliography at the end of your work after the main body of text and any appendices.

References in a bibliography are similar in format to, but not quite the same, the citations you would use in footnotes:


Citation in a footnote

14 MDA Freeman, Family Values and Family Justice (Ashgate 2010).
15 R Moorhead, 'An American Future? Contingency Fees, Claims Explosions and Evidence from Employment Tribunals' (2010) 73 MLR 752.
16 S Choudhry and J Herring, European Human Rights and Family Law (OUP 2010).

Reference in a bibliography

Choudhry S and Herring J, European Human Rights and Family Law (OUP 2010)
Freeman MDA, Family Values and Family Justice (Ashgate 2010)

Journal Articles
Moorhead R, 'An American Future? Contingency Fees, Claims Explosions and Evidence from Employment Tribunals' (2010) 73 MLR 752

If you are citing more than one item by the same author, list the items in each category chronologically. After the reference to the first item, you can replace the author's name with two em-dashes (--):


Hart HLA, Law, Liberty and Morality (OUP 1963)
--Punishment and Responsibility (OUP 1968)

The following pages will show you how to:

  • cite cases and legislation, i.e. the ‘primary’ sources of law, in the accepted way
  • refer to ‘secondary’ sources such as books, journals and government reports in your work
  • cite using OSCOLA, the Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities, fourth edition.

View the pages in order using the arrow below or jump directly to a page using the links in the panel on the left.




This resource was devised by Cathie Jackson and Ian Bradley, Information Services staff at Cardiff University and was partly funded by the UK Centre for Legal Education. The 4th edition revisions have been added by Matthew Davies and Lynn Goodhew. OSCOLA is produced by the Oxford University Law Faculty and further details in the use of the OSCOLA style can be found on the OSCOLA website.

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